2)COLUM OR PILLAR
6)Damp-proof course (DPC)
Foundation is the layer between the soil and the structure which helps to transfer a load of superstructure to the earth. It is always constructed below the ground level to increase the lateral stability of the structure.
Columns or pillars are the vertical members of the structure that transfer load to the foundation.
Beam is the horizontal member of the structure. It is responsible for resisting vertical loads, shear forces and bending moments.
Plinth beam is constructed between the wall and the foundation. It helps in distributing equal weight to the foundation and prevent propagation of cracks which can happen due to settlement of soil below. Walls are built on top of it.
Slab is the horizontal component of the structure that is constructed to create flat surfaces such as floors, roofs, and ceilings they are supported by beams, columns walls, or the ground.
Lintel is constructed above the wall openings like doors, windows, etc. It is built to support the weight of the wall coming over the opening.
Damp-proof course (DPC) is a layer of waterproofing material applied to prevent the rise of surface water into the walls constructed over. It is usually applied above the Plinth beam.
Parapet are those short walls extended above the roof slab which acts as a safety wall for people.